Sleep & Routine

Several studies have found that patients with dry eye symptoms have poor sleep quality 1-5. A recent large multicentre cohort study on 71,761 Dutch participants found that sleep quality was significantly reduced in participants with dry eye symptoms 3. Another recent meta-analysis has concluded that patients with dry eye disease (DED) may have poorer sleep quality, greater daytime sleepiness, less sleep, more sleep disturbances, and increased prevalence, incidence, and severity of sleep disorders compared to non-DED patients 5.

REST is designed to be incorporated into your nightly sleep routine. Forming regular habits around bedtime very quickly and effectively signals to your body when it’s time for sleep 6,7. Using REST not only helps to guide your breathing into a slower, more relaxed state promoting sleep quality 8,9, but it can quickly become a key part of your routine that mentally and physically initiates the sleeping process. Using REST immediately before trying to sleep has the added benefit of encouraging you to form healthier sleep habits – not looking at your phone or other devices, limiting blue light exposure and other disruptive stimuli 10-12. Moreover, recent work has examined how (separate from and in addition to the benefits of bedtime routines), gently warming your eyes before bed can promote sleep onset, the amount of deep sleep, and how rested people feel in the morning 13-15. REST is designed from the ground up to be a multifaceted approach to wellness, based on the robust supporting scientific literature.

  1. Wolffsohn J, Negishi K, Ayaki M, Kawashima M, Tsubota K. Sleep and subjective happiness between the ages 40 and 59 in relation to presbyopia and dry eye. Plos One 2021;16(4):e0250087.
  2. Sayegh RR, Yu Y, Farrar JT, Kuklinski EJ, Shtein RM, Asbell PA, et al. Ocular Discomfort and Quality of Life Among Patients in the Dry Eye Assessment and Management Study. Cornea 2020;Publish Ahead of Print.
  3. Magno MS, Utheim TP, Snieder H, Hammond CJ, Vehof J. The relationship between dry eye and sleep quality. The Ocular Surface 2021;20:13-9.
  4. Lim EWL, Chee ML, Sabanayagam C, Majithia S, Tao Y, Wong TY, et al. Relationship Between Sleep and Symptoms of Tear Dysfunction in Singapore Malays and Indians. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science 2019;60(6):1889.
  5. Au NH, Mather R, To A, Malvankar-Mehta MS. Sleep outcomes associated with dry eye disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology 2019;54(2):180-9.
  6. Johnson JE. A comparative study of the bedtime routines and sleep of older adults. J Community Health Nurs. 1991;8(3):129-36. doi: 10.1207/s15327655jchn0803_2
  7. He JW, Tu ZH, Xiao L, Su T, Tang YX. Effect of restricting bedtime mobile phone use on sleep, arousal, mood, and working memory: A randomized pilot trial. PLoS One. 2020;15(2):e0228756. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0228756
  8. Kuula L, Halonen R, Kajanto K, Lipsanen J, Makkonen T, Peltonen M, Pesonen AK. The Effects of Presleep Slow Breathing and Music Listening on Polysomnographic Sleep Measures - a pilot trial. Sci Rep. 2020 May 4;10(1):7427. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-64218-7.
  9. Tsai HJ, Kuo TB, Lee GS, Yang CC. Efficacy of paced breathing for insomnia: enhances vagal activity and improves sleep quality. Psychophysiology. 2015 Mar;52(3):388-96. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12333.
  10. LeBourgeois MK, Hale L, Chang AM, Akacem LD, Montgomery-Downs HE, Buxton OM. Digital Media and Sleep in Childhood and Adolescence. Pediatrics. 2017;140(Suppl 2):S92-S96. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-1758J
  11. Gringras P, Middleton B, Skene DJ, Revell VL. Bigger, Brighter, Bluer-Better? Current Light-Emitting Devices - Adverse Sleep Properties and Preventative Strategies. Front Public Health. 2015;3:233. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2015.00233
  12. Exelmans L, Van den Bulck J. Bedtime mobile phone use and sleep in adults. Soc Sci Med. 2016 Jan;148:93-101. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.11.037. 
  13. Ichiba T, Suzuki M, Aritake-Okada S, Uchiyama M. Periocular skin warming elevates the distal skin temperature without affecting the proximal or core body temperature. Scientific Reports 2019;9(1).
  14. Igaki M, Suzuki M, Sakamoto I, Ichiba T, Kuriyama K, Uchiyama M. Effects of bedtime periocular and posterior cervical cutaneous warming on sleep status in adult male subjects: a preliminary study. Sleep Biol Rhythms. 2018;16(1):77-84. doi: 10.1007/s41105-017-0129-3.